TThe Economic and Social Development of the Port–Cities of the Southern Black Sea Coast and Hinterland, Late 18th – Beginning of the 20th century
Edhem Eldem, Sophia Laiou, Vangelis Kechriotis (eds)
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Edhem Eldem, Sophia Laiou, Vangelis Kechriotis (eds), The Economic and Social Development of the Port–Cities of the Southern Black Sea Coast and Hinterland, Late 18th – Beginning of the 20th century, Black Sea History Project Working Papers, volume 5
The southern coast covers the Ottoman and later Turkish area from Istanbul to east of Rize, an area populated until the beginning of the twentieth century mostly by Muslims, but with also a significant non-Muslim population both in the port-cities and the hinterland. From the fifteenth century until the treaty of Küçük Kaynarcı in 1774 after the Russo-Ottoman war (1768-1774) the Black Sea remained an “Ottoman lake”, since no foreign ship was allowed to pass the Straits. In this way, the Ottoman empire wished to fully control the Black Sea trade and impose Istanbul as the obligatory transit station for all the trade routes. Only with the afore mentioned treaty and the treaty of Aynalı Kavak in 1779 Russia and other foreign states managed to trade freely in the Black Sea and pass through the Straits. Since then and throughout the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Black Sea coast and its hinterland developed economically, and the two port cities, Samsun and Trebizond, served as transit stations for the connection between East,- especially Iran-, Anatolia, the Russian coast and Istanbul.
The volume on the Ottoman Black Sea is divided into sections based on thematic criterion. In the first section the focus is on Istanbul as the prominent economic and consuming centre, which connected the Black Sea with the eastern Mediterranean and the West. In the second part of the volume the emphasis is on the economy of the Ottoman Black Sea coast during the “long” Ottoman 19th century. Moving from economic to a more political aspect of the history of the Ottoman coast of the Black Sea in the 19th century, the third section continues with the political and administrative aspects of the Ottoman government in the southern coast of the Black Sea area and the interaction between Ottoman state and the ethnic communities.
PART I: THE ROLE OF ISTANBUL IN THE BLACK SEA AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE
- 1.Sophia Laiou, The Ottoman state and the Black Sea Trade, 18th –beginning of the 19th century
- 2.Gerasimos Pagkratis, The Ottoman Empire and the Ionian maritime enterprises (late 18th-early 19th century)
- 3.Christos Hadziiossif, Parallel lives: Greek shipping and the port of Istanbul
- 4.Katerina Galani,The Galata Bankers and the international banking of the Greek business group in the 19th century
PART II: THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BLACK SEA ECONOMY IN THE 19TH CENTURY
- 4. Edhem Eldem, Scanning the Ottoman Black Sea in 1900 through the Revue commerciale du Levant.
- 5.†Evrydiki Sifneos, “Was the extraction of coal at Kozlu and Zonguldak mines profitable?” An attempt at an answer from the Courdgi papers.
- 6.Ekin Mahmuzlu, The Transformation of the Mercantile Shipping in Eastern Anatolian Black Sea Ports between 1834 and 1914
- 7.Stavros Anestidis,Samsun (Amisos). Aspects of financial development and cosmopolitanism in the late 19th century
- 8.Şahika Karatepe - Mustafa Batman, The Rising of a Muslim Merchant Family: The Nemlizade’s
- 9.Mehmet Yavuz Erler - Mucize Ünlü,Refugees in the basin of the Canik mines: Greek Orthodox from mining to agriculture (1790-1884)
PART III: POLITICS, ADMINISTRATION AND THE OTTOMAN GREEK COMMUNITIES IN THE BLACK SEA
- 10.Kudret Emiroğlu, The Interaction of the State with the Communities in Trabzon based on the Salnames, the Official Year-Books (1869-1904).
- 11.Hamdi Özdiş, Some Observations on the Structure of Power Relations and Ottoman Administration in the Late Nineteenth-Century Trabzon Vilayet
- 12.†Vangelis Kechriotis, Greek-Orthodox in politics and the economy of the Black Sea port cities at the end of the Empire
- 13.Elia Kyfonidou, The Greek-Orthodox communities of Pontus at the beginning of the twentieth century: A glimpse at the Greek bibliography
 X. de Planhol, “Kara Deniz”, Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed., v. IV,p. 575-577.